Showing posts from August 19, 2007

ECN(Explicit Congestion Notification) - capable transport - ECT(1) vs ECT(0)

Explicit Congestion Notification in IP

ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification)

This document specifies that the Internet provide a congestion
indication for incipient congestion (as in RED and earlier work
[RJ90]) where the notification can sometimes be through marking
packets rather than dropping them. This uses an ECN field in the IP
header with two bits, making four ECN codepoints, '00' to '11'. The
ECN-Capable Transport (ECT) codepoints '10' and '01' are set by the
data sender to indicate that the end-points of the transport protocol
are ECN-capable; we call them ECT(0) and ECT(1) respectively. The
phrase "the ECT codepoint" in this documents refers to either of the
two ECT codepoints. Routers treat the ECT(0) and ECT(1) codepoints
as equivalent. Senders are free to use either the ECT(0) or the
ECT(1) codepoint to indicate ECT, on a packet-by-packet basis.

The use of both the two codepoints for ECT, ECT(0) and ECT…

Canonical vs Non-canonical

Canonical Form

Canonical form(also known as "LSB format" and "Ethernet format") is the name given to the format of a LAN adapter address as it should be presented to the user according to the 802 LAN standard. It is best defined as how the bit order of an adapter address on the LAN media maps to the bit order of an adapter address in memory: The first bit of each byte that appears on the LAN maps to the least significant(i.e., right-most) bit of each byte in memory (the figure below illustrates this). This puts the group address indicator (i.e., the bit that defines whether an address is unicast or multicast) in the least significant bit of the first byte. Ethernet and 802.3 hardware behave consistently with this definition. Unfortunately, Token Ring (and some FDDI) hardware does not behave consistently with this definition; it maps the first bit of each byte of the adapter address to the most significant(i.e., left-most) bit of each byte in memory, which puts th…