Convert Analog Signals to Digital Signals Steps

Step 1 Sampling:
The analog signal is sampled periodically. The output of the sampling is a pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) signal.

Step 2 Quantization:
The PAM signal is matched to a segmented scale. This scale measures the amplitude (height) of the PAM signal.

Step 3 Encoding:
The matched scale value is represented in binary format.

Step 4 Compression:
Optionally, voice samples can be compressed to reduce bandwidth requirements. Analog-to-digital conversion is done by digital signal processors (DSPs), which are located on the voice interface cards. The conversion is needed for calls received on analog lines, which are then sent out to a packet network or to a digital voice interface.
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