RC4(Rivest Cipher 4) algorithm

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In cryptography, RC4 (also known as ARC4 or ARCFOUR) is the most widely-used software stream cipher and is used in popular protocols such as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) (to protect Internet traffic) and WEP (to secure wireless networks). While remarkable in its simplicity, RC4 falls short of the high standards of security set by cryptographers, and some ways of using RC4 can lead to very insecure cryptosystems (an example being WEP). It is not recommended for use in new systems. However, some systems based on RC4 are secure enough for practical use.

RC4 was designed by Ron Rivest of RSA Security in 1987. While it is officially termed "Rivest Cipher 4", the RC acronym is alternatively understood to stand for "Ron's Code" (see also RC2, RC5 and RC6).

RC4 was initially a trade secret, but in September 1994 a description of it was anonymously posted to the Cypherpunks mailing list[1]. It was soon posted on the sci.crypt newsgroup, and from there to many sites on the Internet. The leaked code was confirmed to be genuine as its output was found to match that of proprietary software using licensed RC4. Because the algorithm is known, it is no longer a trade secret. The name "RC4" is trademarked, however. The current status seems to be that "unofficial" implementations are legal, but cannot use the RC4 name. RC4 is often referred to as "ARCFOUR" or "ARC4" (meaning Alleged RC4, because RSA has never officially released the algorithm), to avoid possible trademark problems. It has become part of some commonly used encryption protocols and standards, including WEP and WPA for wireless cards and TLS.

The main factors which helped its deployment over such a wide range of applications consisted in its impressive speed and simplicity. Implementations in both software and hardware are very easy to develop.
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